Archive for the ‘Theology’ Category

Good Friday: the power of the state

April 18, 2014

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Jesus the Palestinian Jew lived under occupation, a rather brutal one at that. The Romans pauperized the local population under heavy taxation and legal theft of foodstuffs which found their way back to Rome.
Ironically the descendants of Palestinians still live under occupation in modern day Israel.

 

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The STATE was and is an agent of crucifixion. Jesus along with thousands of others paid the ultimate price—one usually paid by those considered a threat to the state and its imperial power. Jesus’ promotion of God’s reign (malkuth Yahweh) was the ultimate threat to Roman anti- reign. The state murdered him, another victim of capital punishment.
The State still crucifies people,either directly like Hitler, Stalin, Mao, Pol Pot or other homicidal maniacs.
Most often the State becomes a proxy for larger states like the American empire and their compliant thugs like the Shah, Pinochet, Rios Montt in Guatemala,Somoza in Nicaragua, the puppet regimes under Russia.
Unfair trade practices, powerful monopolies such as Monsanto, protection policies keep the poor on the cross throughout the world.
The State also is an agent of crucifixion of the earth,an almost autistic promoter of climate change. we are witness in our time to the ongoing active extinction of species.

 

On Good Friday the state continues to crucify.

The Mob and Good Friday

April 17, 2014

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The Mob is an agent of crucifixion. We see the mob in Jerusalem screaming “Crucify him and give us Barabbas” The Mob is always with us today usually as an uninformed voice screaming for vengeance, personal gain over public good.No taxes, it screams in Rob Ford’s Toronto.It never links taxes with livable cities and social cohesion

 
These voices have grown exponentially with the rise of the internet,a notorious anarchic place for uninformed opinion. Often these voices are faceless and anonymous, silent in the wake of human suffering, voluble in the promotion of private goods over public squalor, often racist and sexist as well.

 
The Mob is the bystanders who do nothing to advance redemption. It sits out history’s great drama and brays just as it did in the time of Jesus. This is the mob today.

 

21 Rabbis

January 25, 2014

RHR_logo_for-Site21 rabbis accompanied Canadian PM Harper on his recent trip to Israel. this fact opens many lines of enquiry and reflection.

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One wonders just exactly what these rabbis stand for, given the horrendous denial of human rights to the indigenous Palestinian community. Of the latter fact there can be no doubt. The wonderful irony of course is that it is often Israeli groups which document the tragic facts of both the ethnic cleansing of Palestine in 1947-48, the theft of land taken in the Six Day War in 1967 and the ongoing illegal settlements. Most of the documentarians are secular “Jews of conscience” who publish the undeniable facts of this ongoing oppression and humiliation. In the age of the internet,all of this meticulous work is available to all. There is no excuse for an educated canadian rabbi no to know this—unless the state of Israel has replaced the Torah as the locus of the ultimate in Judaism.

These groups are well known in Israel, the foremost being B’Tselem The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories http://www.btselem.org/. For over two decades this marvelous flowering of Jewish tradition has documented settler abuse and championed human rights in the West Bank and Gaza and as their website proclaims “ promoting a future where all Israelis and Palestinians will live in freedom and dignity.”

Before the Obama inauguration in January 2009, Israel unleashed a savage attack on Gaza entitled Operation Cast lead. B’tselem tallied up the result: 1398 Palestinians killed by the overwhelming forces of the IDF. Bear in mind the shocking asymmetry of the sides in this conflict.

The IDF has planes and an air force, missiles, tanks, gunboats, a professional army.They travel on “Jews only” roads. The Palestinians have none of these except the hopelessly  inaccurate Katyusha  rockets. They have neither army, air force, Apache helicopters provided by the USA, F-16s courtesy of same, tanks, defense of any kind, a pathetic leadership , an apartheid wall which has stolen 10% of their land and  divides families. It is a slow strangulating death.

So we have in this stunning slaughter in Gaza— 1398 Palestinians killed, 344 minors among them and only 22 who were taking part in the hostilities, 248 policemen killed inside their offices, 110 women among the dead, wholesale infrastructure demolished. And  on the other side 6 dead Israelis, soldiers in the security forces  who also carry the divine image.

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And we remember the horrible pictures of Israelis watching the slaughter from distant hill tops. A family outing? A computer game?

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The above is but a tiny picture of the colonial war on the territory of Palestine which has now lasted  65 years.  The suffering has been incalculable, the reporting absolutely abysmal and saddest of all, the silence of the synagogue, deeply regrettable.

Amidst this contemporary version of Dante’s hell, yet, we have rabbis who like the above have not been silent, who carry the Torah into this suffering. Rabbis for Human Rights (http://rhr.org.il/eng/ ) are those men and women in Israel who are the “rabbinic voice of conscience in Israel, giving voice to the Jewish tradition of human rights”. The organization was founded in 1988, and includes 100 Israeli members from every branch of Judaism as well as some rabbinical students. It is supported by shuls in the diaspora.

Their vision statement says it all:

Our work expresses the view that as Jews, we are obligated to protest against every injustice enacted against any other person, a view based on the belief that man and women was created in God’s image. We believe that it is our obligation to inform the Israeli public about human rights violations, and that it is our role to pressure state institutions to fix these injustices.

One of those rabbis is American-born, Harvard educated Arilk Ascherman the recipient of the Gandhi Peace award in 2011. This reb shows up at as many house demolitions (there have been app.27,000)since 1967). Ascherman describes one of these heartbreaking incidents:

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 The families were hysterical. The grandmother was wailing while the father of the family was clutching at his heart and others were begging us to do something. It was simply heartbreaking …We watched helplessly as the pneumatic drills tore into the final remaining home. To officer after officer I read off chapter and verse from various international conventions which Israel is a party to. Commanders ordered their people not to listen or take the paper….The charge sheet against me claims that I ran in front of the bulldozers, interfering with the work of security forces and endangering myself. I can say that I lost my kippah (the Jewish skull cap) in the ensuing moments….There isn’t much in the rubble of those houses, as the families succeeded in removing most of their belongings. It is not like some of the demolitions where we find children’s toys, clothes and schoolbooks among the rubble. However, there is a kippah and I feel that it means something. Perhaps it symbolizes the trampling and burial of the Jewish Values I grew up believing in. Perhaps it means the opposite. Perhaps it symbolizes the fact that their were Jews who stood against this injustice in the name of Torah.

And those 20 rabbis on the plane. What are they thinking?

O Little Town of Bethlehem

December 25, 2013

Move beyond  the “first naiveté”(Ricoeur)

The first naïveté refers to the interpretation of scripture (or religious belief)  where everything is taken at face value. This is the same as saying that  the person in the first naïveté believes everything about his religion literally.

A socio-political reading of the gospel.

To be “good news” the gospel must be contemporary, speak to us in our historical situation.

The mighty symbols of the birth stories—Herod,no room at the inn, following the Star are in Michael Dowd’s words “night language”, spectacular images of emotional truth. They are metaphorical, not to be read like “day language” of everyday discourse. Here is my latest attempt. It reflects Jesus under occupation as he was in antiquity by the Romans. Today Jesus alive in the oppressed Palestinians lives under Israeli occupation.

These prose-poems I have penned for over 40 years  are consistent in that they take seriously the idea that the Christmas stories are not for children. Christians have for far too long treated the Infancy Narratives as either myth or as pretty harmless legends for kids. They are anything but. They are evangelical dynamite, brilliantly polished nuggets brimming with radical theological import. They challenge the Roman claim that the powerful Emperor Augustus is Lord and rules as “dominus et deus.” a common inscription of the time. In an absolutely outrageous claim, the evengelists point to the itinerant rabbi, murdered by the state as “dominus et deus.”

Roman writers of antiquity could not grasp the dynamic spread of the Jesus Movement. Men like Tacitus quoted here, were  beside themselves as the exitiabilis superstitio (pernicious superstition ) continued to make inroads in the vast empire long after Jesus’s public execution. The description  of, this great Roman historian, is typical of the time—shocking disbelief that a “dominus et deus” could come out of Galilee, part of  a backwater Roman province.

My prose poems  attempt to unpack the good news for our time. In the words of the great German theologian Johann Baptist Metz, these are “dangerous” stories.  I have simply tried to let them speak to our era. Each year demands a new interpretation. If the four gospels do not reproduce a “fifth” for our age, they are simply “old news” and not “good news.” I have  tried to be faithful to the contemporary manifestation of the  Spirit, the Divine Disturber.  I am indebted to my great teacher in England, Hubert Richards  who set me on this path in 1971.

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Then they opened their treasures and presented him with gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh. And having been warned in a dream not to go back to Herod, they returned to their country by another route.

Matthew 2:11.12

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And on the way they came upon the “apartheid wall”.

Dumbfounded they asked Samir who was weeping nearby in his destroyed olive grove.

“See for yourselves,” he said through his tears, ”twice as high as the Berlin wall, criss crossing Palestine, 4000 miles of concrete hatred.

It rips neighbourhoods, isolates us from friends and family, steals productive farmland and water supplies—all illegal under international law.

We are imprisoned in ghettoes much like Lodz, Lublin and Vilna were in the Shoah.

Settlers from Russia and America are connected by “Jews only” roads, free to travel to loved ones—1660 kms. Such a democracy!

Our holy city Al Quds is encircled by this monster squeezing us into 5 ghettoes.”

Repression continues. Herod has not died. But the baby lives and his Spirit surely will cut through this wall.

Awake, it’s Advent

December 17, 2013

 

 

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Our magnificent daily, The Toronto Star  still suffused with the principles of its Methodist  founder Joe Atkinson (comfort the afflicted, afflict the comfortable) is constant its defense of the common good. It resists the dismantling of the commons by stealth of the Harper government, as mean-spirited aggregation we have ever seen.

There is a columnist Carole Goar who is a national treasure. She sees society from the bottom up.

This is from her Dec.12 column

In the final hours before Parliament adjourned for its eight-week Christmas recess, James Rajotte , chair of the finance committee, quietly tabled Income Equality in Canada: An Overview.

 A quick glance at the 69-page report shows why the Conservative MP waited until the last possible moment to release it, precluding parliamentary debate and minimizing public attention.

It is a pathetic piece of work. It heaps praise on Prime Minister Stephen Harper for his regressive policies. It says nothing about lifting low-income Canadians out of poverty, nothing about tackling the desperate shortage of affordable housing in the country, nothing about increasing the Canada Child Tax Benefit, nothing about improving public pensions and nothing about shoring up the country’s deteriorating social programs. 

The Canadian Catholic Bishops should put her columns on their website.

But I digress.

I try to take the Advent advice seriously. Awake, look around, shake yourself from your slumber.

On one side we are called to “pay attention”. See what PM Harper and his gang is doing. The values of the kingdom challenge me to denounce such terrible policies and to act to change them. My politics are never contained in any one party. The politics of the kingdom  or God’s holy commonwealth informs my electoral politics. I will never find the perfect party so I must come to terms with the human condition and support the one which most embodies the gospel values I hold dear. Needless to say the Harperites fail calamitously here. Their disregard for the poor and their horrible violation of the earth put them beyond the pale.

But denunciation  is just a part of my choice. I must have an annunciation. Where is the good new in my daily life which i must celebrate , champion and sing about.

The second Sunday of Advent, Jesus’ favourite prophet Isaiah reminds  with righteousness he will judge the needy,with justice he will give decisions for the poor of the earth.” Hence Carole Goar.

Ah but on the Third Sunday, the gospel announces,” Go back and report to John what you hear and see:  The blind receive sight, the lame walk, those who have leprosy are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised, and the good news is proclaimed to the poor.” (Matt.11:4,5)

Look around and see the miracles of human compassion, solidarity, human concern.

Peter Mayer’s contemporary hymn  Everything is Holy

Read a questioning child’s face

And say it’s not a testament

That’d be very hard to say

See another new morning come

And say it’s not a sacrament

 On the way into the coffee shop outside  the daycare I laughed as a 2 year old, his father watching in bemusement, stomped with glee through the snow.

And last week getting off the Go Train at night I fell and scraped my knee and hand. I heard, a voice behind me ”Are you alright, sir”, I looked up from the ground and saw a young man rush toward me. I am still living in the glow of that solicitousness. A pure sacramental moment.

Everything is holy now.

Gaudete, rejoice!

Advent: Wake up!

December 15, 2013

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Our Advent liturgy committee met as it does every year to plan the four weeks of Advent, always a favourite period of mine. The church calendar invites to go deeper, take time,to leave behind the mad rush of the Christmas steeplechase which surrounds us at this time of the year.

We look at the readings. What do they say to us today in this big city?

This year i suggested that we might look at the theme of looking around us. It  leapt out at me in the first gospel of advent Matthew 24:37-44).

“Keep awake”, the master says,”You must be ready for the Son of Man is coming at an unexpected hour.”

Indeed.

We just need  better vision, new eyes to understand and see this. They are common, everyday occurrences.

Do you know the contemporary hymn Everything is Holy? Nobody did but after we swapped emails on the community chat line and people heard it, they all warmed to it. It is by Peter Mayer. Here’s the first verse

When I was a boy, each week

On Sunday, we would go to church

And pay attention to the priest

He would read the holy word

And consecrate the holy bread

And everyone would kneel and bow

Today the only difference is

Everything is holy now

Everything, everything

Everything is holy now

Another verse:

When holy water was rare at best

It barely wet my fingertips

But now I have to hold my breath

Like I’m swimming in a sea of it

It used to be a world half there

Heaven’s second rate hand-me-down

But I walk it with a reverent air

‘Cause everything is holy now

Everything, every thing

Everything is holy now

And Brian our masterful musician learned it quickly.

I remember Teilhard saying years ago: To those with eyes to see nothing is profane.

An example next posting

Who owns the Spirit?

May 20, 2013

 

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Pentecost—50 days after Easter.

It would be interesting to hear homilies in our churches on this day.

Was the Spirit absent from the world before Jesus? Hardly. The Holy One has been at work right from the beginning. The life force has been working within all of creation forever. It was this deep intuition, in the scripture it is called “kingdom” or basileia in the language of the New Testament, this felt reality which brought Jesus. He was hardly the first to be so touched. There have been other avatars.  Christians believe of course that his response was the fullest, a breakthrough moment in history. Ernst Troeltsch said this: “Jesus did not bring the kingdom, the kingdom brought Jesus” and it is bringing us—if we are open to its dynamism, creativity, relationality. One needs an evolutionary perspective to come close to understanding this.

We fumble with language, metaphor, ways of expressing this. Biblical words like Advocate and Comforter are not helpful.

So what did we hear in our churches? I don’t know. My hope is that we might first grasp the  Johannine wisdom that “the Spirit blows where it wills.” The Catholic Church has no exclusive claim to this. We all know people of no religion who exhibit Spirit like qualities and committed energy to justice and the common good to cosmic and global sustainability. They are vehicles of the holy energy.The kingdom has come close in these people.

God is Justice not Love

April 30, 2013

 

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The option for the poor comes from the first centuries of Christianity. It is the Gospel itself,” said then-Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio during a 2010 deposition in a human rights trial. He said that if he were to repeat “any of the sermons from the first fathers of the church, from the 2nd or 3rd century, about how the poor must be treated, they would say that mine would be Maoist or Trotskyite.”

The new pope cuts to the chase.

The gospel is social justice. It’s what got Jesus murdered and why he did not live to an old age. The “malkuta Yahweh” commonly called the  “kingdom” or “Godly rule” is about justice, access to the  world’s goods which are skewed in favour of the privileged north. In Jesus time they were captured and hoarded  by the Roman empire and its minions. God’s rule on the contrary  demanded a just reconfiguration, a redustribution—”on earth  as it is in heaven.”

North Americans and conservative Catholics sentimentalize the gospel by  using the word “love” as Jesus’s message. And it’s primarily interpersonal. never structural or global.Well, we love Coke and dogs love Alpo, in other words “love” is a totally bastardized and inadequate word. Nobody gets crucified for “love”—but justice is another problem. God’s will  gets you into trouble.

Love in the New Testament as in last Sunday’s gospel–”Love one another as I have loved you”— is operational not simply emotional.It demands sharing. Contemporary usage born of massive advertising has cheapened the word LOVE.The real meaning is closer  is closer to justice.God is justice.

John Dominic Crossan says, “Think of justice as the body of love and love as the soul of justice”. Alfred North Whitehead’s “Justice is love grown imaginative”  hits the mark as  well. Crossan again, “Justice without love or love without justice is a moral corpse.That is why justice without love becomes brutal and love without justice becomes banal.”

In our privileged lives we don’t want justice. Parishes settle for charity because there is a terrible price to be paid for advocating  justice.The kingdom  will always be a tough sell in North America.We’re a resurrected people aren’t we? Not without the cross, not without justice.

No salvation outside this world

February 1, 2013

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That marvellous Church man William Sloane Coffin got it right when he said that In times of oppression, if you don’t translate choices of faith into political choices, you run the danger of washing your hands, like Pilate.The believing person  must be the political person—with a difference. Our loyalties as Christians  will never be tethered to any political party. History has shown the sad results when churches  linked arms with state governments, catastrophic results ensued—from the Constantinian era to Hitler to you name it. The Church of England felt the backlash after WW1 when people remembered the lockstep promotion of war all in the name of the warrior Christ.  Political parties always want God’s blessings on their policies Latterly the Baptists and many evangelicals became the mouthpieces for GW Bush’s bellicose policies and it cost them credibility- almost as much as the Catholic Church in Germany when the future Pope Pius Xll, Eugenio Pacelli dissolved the Centre Party in Germany and paved the way for Hitler. Catholic churches in too many places still fly the American flag on their altars. Bad move. The simple reason is that states have “interests”, seldom deep evangelical  values—which Christians associate with God’s reign of justice and the common good. Constantine was no fool when he brought the Church into the imperial tent.

So where do Christians park their votes in a democratic society? We are still citizens but we  have a different politics—that of the Reign of God which judges all political parties. The Dominican giant Edward Schillebeeckx said  that “Nulla salus extra mundum” (No salvation outside this world) was the key to a meaningful theological response. This was obviously a riff on the classic medievalist notion “nulla salus extra ecclesiam—there is no salvation outside the Church”—a preposterous and arrogant assertion of 14th century popes like Boniface Vlll and Innocent lll.

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Schilebeeckx turned this on its head and told us if you are looking for salvation, look into history and the world. You will find God active on the same side which Jesus privileged, that of the forgotten poor. Now contemporary theology has pointed to the despoiled earth as a manifestation of the Holy. This too is part of the common goods of the earth meant for all. No nation, no people is more important than any other. The super-developed west and its hogging of the globe’s resources stand in judgment and our  despoliation of the poor and the planet is a stench in the nostrils of God. So you should not vote for any party which ignores the poor and the earth. No Tea Party for you.

Our postmodern world has confused and challenged modern believers. Grand narratives, heretofore sacrosanct, have broken down. People seem adrift hence the move to a secure fundamentalism, a simplistic embrace in “one size” fits all theology, a rejection of pluralism. Some nervous Catholics embraced this concept, throwing their minds and hearts  to Rome with a desperate hope that ultimate meaning is alone brokered by the Catholic Church which holds out against any change. It is in Cardinal Ottaviani’s words, “Semper idem.” (always the same).The Pope and his bishops have the answers. Not so, a top-down hierarchical and patriarchal world has broken down and a new gestalt us emerging—more feminist, ecological and evolutionary. This is the meaning of vatican ll’s “signs of the times”. Rome (The Catholic Church) is merely one institution which has been unable to adapt to the “New”.

Conservative Catholicism, paralyzed by fear that things are out of control has run smack into evolutionary theology, in the key of D(Darwin). The price for staying the same is death. This is the sin against the Spirit. Now we are in history and change must be the only constant. The authentic Spirit (if Jesus is our lodestar) keeps prodding with the insistent call for biblical justice, for greater inclusion and compassion. It is OK for the patriarchal Church to die…this is the meaning of the Paschal Mystery, death is a prelude to deeper life.

The Holy for many today seems to be bypassing static churches hanging on to outmoded traditions or a Tradition which refuses to evolve The quest for meaning and purpose is a cardinal part  of being human but it is only found on the raucous seas of history’s turbulence, never in dogma or doctrine. Outside this world there is no salvation. The Church with its Christic values must be there joining other institutions raising up the whole human family, the earth etc. We will be bringing “the politics of the kingdom”, the evolutionary Spirit to the drama.This will mean we will have little truck with right wing parties. This wave will take us beyond the status quo, exceptionalism, fundamentalism, consumerism, nationalism, patriarchy etc  into the radical interdependence and relatedness of all human and planetary life.

Heschel and King

December 26, 2012

 

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On the cover of my upcoming book is a picture of myself holding a holy text.It is called Who is Man by Rabbi Abraham Heschel. The reb who died at age 65 in 1971 shortly after welcoming my friend Philip Berrigan from prison was to me the great religious prophet of the times, along with Martin Luther King. They both insisted that the holy was alive in secular society, that it had long ago refused to be bottled up in the sanctuary. Their lives and words still resonate more than ever and thanks to a secular paper The Philadelphia Enquirer this article appeared on Christmas  Day 2012. Note the prophetic cooperation of rabbi and catholic nun

Speak and Act as Prophets Did:

The Teachings of Dr. King & Rabbi Heschel

By Sister Mary Scullion and Rabbi Arthur Waskow

Forty-four years ago, the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was killed. Forty years ago, his close friend and prophetic partner, Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel, died. In biblical tradition, “40” is a ripe number, suggesting a pregnant pause before a major transformation – Moses and the Israelites wandering 40 years in the desert, Jesus’ 40 days of temptation. What do we learn from their teachings, a generation since their deaths?

The two of them were, in their day, an odd couple. King was a product of the black Baptist church, raised in the oppressive confines of the Jim Crow South and the crucible of American racism. Heschel, descended from a long line of Polish Hasidic rabbis, fled Nazi-dominated Europe (where most of his family was killed).

A towering Jewish intellectual, theologian, and mystic, Heschel brought ancient Hasidic spirituality into the tumultuous world of social activism in the 1960s. Given his writings on the religious struggle of the modern person in a confusing world, and on the urgent relevance of the ancient Hebrew prophets, it was no surprise that he found a kindred spirit in King.

Today, religion is often divisive (even violently so); in the 1960s, Dr. King and Rabbi Heschel modeled a friendship rooted in deep admiration and mutual affirmation of their respective spiritual traditions. Today, we debate the role of religion in the civil arena – usually resulting in rancorous and judgmental culture wars; King and Heschel were public theologians and spiritually grounded activists, witnessing to the power of faith in the service of social transformation.

he iconic photograph of the two of them together at the 1965 march from Selma to Montgomery is emblematic of the best possibilities of the vision of the civil rights struggle. (Later, Heschel noted famously of that experience, “I felt my legs were praying.”)

Heschel and King worked closely together in spiritually rooted prophetic opposition to racism, poverty, and militarism in American society. Like the biblical prophets, they spoke truth to power – but also spoke truth to the disempowered, who can only win their fair share of democratic power by learning and acting on the truth. They spoke truth to their own supporters, even when those supporters urged them to hush – as many did when they spoke out against the Vietnam War. The two of them witnessed to the absolute unity of means and ends, as embodied in nonviolence. The two of them likewise demonstrated a deep unity of prayer and social action.

A biblical generation later, many Americans who likewise see the connection of faith and social transformation are drawing on the legacy of these two brothers. What issues would Dr. King and Rabbi Heschel address today?

Perhaps the mass imprisonment of more than two million Americans, most of them black or Hispanic. Perhaps the breathtaking increase in poverty and economic inequality. Perhaps the horrendous violence in our society.
Perhaps the physical and legal attacks on American Muslims and Hispanic immigrants. Perhaps the government dysfunction that threatens our financial stability. Perhaps our collective failure to address the climate crisis that threatens the web of life, including human life, on our planet.

These two prophets would speak forcefully to the image of God in each person, the inherent dignity in even the most marginalized of our sisters and brothers. They would give voice to the “beloved community”
as the ultimate answer to the crises of poverty, homelessness, addictions, and violence. They would translate the language of Torah, Prophets, and Gospels into a concrete and compelling vision of justice and peace for our world today.

And they would not be content with rhetoric alone: In their generation, they modeled putting faith into action, and today they would urge us to collective action to address injustice and work for the common good. They would insist that any genuine vision must translate into concrete policies, legislation, and real public action.

But now that is our task. Today, no less than in his day, we are confronted with what Dr. King called “the fierce urgency of now.” As much now as then, we are challenged by Rabbi Heschel’s words: “In a free society, when evil is done, some are guilty; all are responsible.”

Forty years have passed since Dr. King and Rabbi Heschel worked and witnessed among us. Perhaps, like a biblical generation that represents a pregnant pause before a major transformation, we may be ready to act for a transformative rebirth in our time.
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Sister Mary Scullion is executive director of Project HOME. Rabbi Arthur Waskow is director of the Shalom Center. Their organizations are among more than 50 sponsoring the King-Heschel Festival at Mishkan Shalom in Philadelphia on Jan. 4 and 5. For more information, seewww.mishkan.org/story/heschel-king-festival.

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